Until the early 1980s, television in Turkey was limited to a single state-run channel, which was closely controlled by the authorities. The advent of satellite channels meant that the public-broadcasting monopoly was broken, since Turkish-language programmes could be beamed in from transmitters in Europe.
Revision of the media law in 2002 meant that government control of the National Broadcasting Council (RTÜK) became tighter than ever. Journalists daring to criticise state institutions or tackle taboo subjects, such as the Kurdish problem and the part played by the army in political life, are still censored, fined heavily and prosecuted without good reason.
Two media conglomerates dominate the market: Doðan and Sabah.
- Sabah – daily
- Zaman – English-language web version of daily
- Hüriyet – mass circulation daily; middle market
- Milliyet – mass circulation daily; middle market
- Cumhuriyet – leftwing daily
- Turkish Daily News – only surviving local English newspaper, owned by the Doðan group
- Turkish Radio and Television (TRT) – national state broadcaster
- Star TV – private
- Kanal D – private
- Show TV – private
- NTV – private
- Turkish Radio and Television (TRT) – state broadcaster
- Show Radio – commercial
- Capital Radio – commercial
(Sources: BBC; Reporters Sans Frontieres; correct at October 2003)
Originally posted with the url: www.englishpen.org/writersintranslation/magazineofliteratureintranslat/turkey/mediainturkey/